Q235 steel is a carbon structural steel. It is equivalent to A3 and C3 steel in the old standard GB700-79 grade, and it is the grade of Russian TOCT. The Q in the steel number represents the yield strength. Usually, the steel is used directly without heat treatment.
Bolt: Mechanical parts, cylindrical threaded fasteners with nuts. A type of fastener consisting of a head and a screw (a cylinder with an external thread) is required to be fitted with a nut for fastening the two parts with through holes. This type of connection is called a bolted connection. If the nut is unscrewed from the bolt, the two parts can be separated, so the bolt connection is a detachable connection.
At present, the standard parts on the market mainly include carbon steel, stainless steel and copper.
According to the way of connection, it is divided into ordinary and reamed holes. According to the shape of the head: there are hexagonal heads, round heads, square heads, countersunk heads, etc. The hexagonal head is the most commonly used. Generally, the countersunk head is used where the connection is required.
Ordinary bolts can be divided into three grades A, B, and C according to the production precision. Grades A and B are refined bolts, and grade C is thick bolts. For the connection bolts for steel structures, unless otherwise specified, they are generally ordinary C-class bolts. There are differences in the methods of different grades. Generally, the corresponding processing methods are as follows: The bolts of 1A and B bolts are machined by lathe, the surface is smooth and the size is accurate. The material performance grade is 8.8, the production and installation are complicated, and the price is relatively high. High, rarely used; Class 2C bolts are made of unprocessed round steel and are not accurate enough to have a material performance rating of 4.6 or 4.8. The deformation is large when the shear connection is made, but the installation is convenient, the production cost is low, and it is mostly used for the temporary connection of the tensile connection or the installation.
There are many names for bolts. Everyone's name may be different. Some people call them screws, some are called bolts, and some people call them fasteners. Although there are so many names, the meanings are the same, they are bolts. Bolts are a general term for fasteners. Bolts are tools that use the physics and mathematical principles of the circular rotation and friction of the bevel of an object to progressively fasten the components of the object.
4. Level meaning
According to the relevant standards, the performance grades of carbon steel and alloy steel bolts are more than 10 grades of 3.6, 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 6.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9, 12.9, among which the bolts of grade 8.8 and above are made of low carbon alloy steel or medium. Carbon steel is heat treated (quenched, tempered), commonly known as high-strength bolts, and the rest is commonly referred to as ordinary bolts. The bolt performance grade label is composed of two parts, which represent the nominal tensile strength value and the yield ratio of the bolt material. Stainless steel bolts are classified into A1-50, A1-70, A1-80, A2-50, A2-70, A2-80, A3-50, A3-70, A3-80, A4-50 according to the class of steel performance. A4-70, A4-80, A5-50, A5-70, A5-80, C1-50, C1-70, C1-110, C4-50, C4-70, C3-80, F1-45, F1- 60. The first letter and number represent the group of stainless steel, and the second and third digits represent 1/10 of the tensile strength.
5. Common surface treatment methods for bolts
Bolts generally need to be surface treated. There are many types of surface treatments for bolts. Generally, blue, electroplated, oxidized, phosphatized, non-electrolytic zinc sheet coatings are commonly used. Among them, plating is the most extensive. For fasteners, not only is it required to have a certain degree of corrosion resistance, but also the interchangeability of the threads must be ensured, which can also be called screwing.
Comparison: The lowest cost of blue is the worst. The galvanizing cost is higher and the anti-corrosion effect is better. Chrome plating is costly but best preserved. The blue surface is blue, the galvanized surface is silver-gray, and the chrome finish is reflective.
6. Inspection of bolts
For large-volume use bolts, the relevant inspections are carried out in the warehouse.
Test the hardness of the bolt ‘bolt torsion torque; do the corresponding salt spray test; the appearance should be no obvious defects. Threads can be tested with standard pass gauges. For other inspection items, see the general specifications for common bolt threads and screws.
7. Thread size and length calculation instructions
The thread size has a distinction between a preferred specification and a non-preferred specification. In general, the second series of non-preferred threads are not used, such as M14 bolts are not preferred. For the interchangeability of bolts, not all sizes of bolts are available. There are also series of bolt lengths, which are divided into full thread and non-full thread. The length of the nut 0.3d should be exposed when calculating the bolt length.
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